|WHAT IS SARDONYX MEANING
As apparent from the name of stone, sardonyx is a kind of onyx - agate gemstone with stripes of different colors. It will be recalled that onyx can have a variety of shades of color. For chalcedony-onyx typical black and white stripes, carnelian, onyx decorated with red and white stripes. Against this background, sardonyx different brown, pink, brown and white stripes. It is known that in ancient times a distinction between "male" and "female" sardonyx. The latter were more soft shades of color.
Onyx, and sardonyx in particular, are widely used in antiquity for cutting cameos and gems. cameos called carved stones with convex image. In other words cameo - a kind of miniature bas-relief on the stone. Sardonyx gem with their alternating layers of different colors and is perfectly suited for the job of this kind.
This image is usually cut so that the bottom layer of stone to serve as fyunom profile or miniatures, which cut out the middle and upper layers. The art of this thread has flourished in Greece in the end of IV century BC centre has been making cameos Alexandria.
Sardonyx , that is "stones from Sarda", were known in Europe since ancient times.
One of the most famous cameos, carved on multilayered sardonyx depicts a portrait of the rulers of Egypt doubles Ptolemy II and his wife Arsinoe. Their profiles are idealized images, reminiscent of the Olympian gods. For the first time this masterpiece of ancient glyptic mentioned in 1542 when describing the treasures of Ludovico Gonzaga - ruler of the Italian city of Mantua. She has had many owners: was the property of the Swedish Queen Christina, was kept in the Vatican in the library of Pope Pius VI. Then Gonzaga Cameo came to France where he passed into the hands of Napoleon's first wife Josephine de Beauharnais.
After the defeat of Napoleon's troops Josephine gave her the Russian Emperor Alexander I, who kept the family Beauharnais, his position and income. In 1814 he gave Gonzaga Cameo in the Hermitage, where it is stored until now. Peter Paul Rubens considered her the most beautiful haemo in Europe, representing companion portrait.
These stones were regarded as symbols of vitality and happiness in marriage.They believed that a sardonyx jewelry to protect their owners from disease, infidelity, perfidy enemies.
In the ancient medical reference about sardonyx gem was told: "Who, putting it in water, drink this water, in addition to abdominal swelling subsides and he gets relief." In India, sardonyx was a talisman, symbols of luck and fortune. In the Christian European culture sardonyx was dedicated to the apostle Philip.